Nipah virus outbreak: Top 10 symptoms of the deadly virus; prevention tips | Health

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Amid the outbreak of Nipah virus in Kerala, the state has been taking all of the precautionary measures to manage the unfold. Thus far, two individuals have died and a minimum of 5 have been contaminated by the virus which has excessive mortality fee however is much less infectious. (Additionally learn: Nipah in Kerala: Containment zones created, ICMR delivers antibody | 10 factors)

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus that can cause severe illness in humans.(Pixabay)
Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus that may trigger extreme sickness in people.(Pixabay)

WHO says the Nipah virus’s fatality fee could also be between 40- 75 p.c. Nipah virus is a viral an infection and the title ‘Nipah’ comes from a Malaysian village, the place the primary outbreak was reported in 1998-1999 and it has excessive mortality.

Whereas Nipah virus begins with gentle signs like headache, muscle ache, fatigue, nausea, it might progress to psychological confusion, seizures and encephalitis when the virus begins affecting mind operate.

What’s Nipah virus?

“Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic virus that may trigger extreme sickness in people. It’s primarily transmitted from animals to people and may also unfold from human to human. The signs of Nipah virus an infection can vary from gentle to extreme,” says Dr Ajay Aggarwal, Director – Inside Medication, Fortis Hospital Noida.

“Nipah virus was first recognized in 1998 throughout an outbreak in Malaysia. Nipah virus an infection can result in extreme respiratory sickness and encephalitis (irritation of the mind),” says Dr G Sneha, Advisor – Normal Medication, CARE Hospitals, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad. (Additionally learn: Nipah virus outbreak in India: What do we all know up to now?)

“Nipah virus is primarily seen in Indo Bangladesh area. In Malaysia, the supply of an infection was nosocomial, the supply being pigs and bats who had transmitted the virus to people. Consecutively, human to human an infection is the reason for unfold of the an infection by droplet an infection. Not too long ago, two unnatural deaths had been reported in Kozhikode, Kerela suspected to be as a result of a brand new virus outbreak within the space. It’s feared that the deaths could be precipitated as a result of Nipah virus,” says Dr Tushar Tayal, Advisor, Inside Medication, CK Birla Hospital, Gurugram.

Signs of Nipah virus

Preliminary signs of Nipah virus are non-specific reminiscent of fever, headache, dizziness, myalgia, vomiting and unfastened stools. This will progress to mind involvement within the type of seizures and encephalitis. There may be respiratory involvement inflicting respiratory failure.

“Nipah an infection has very excessive morbidity within the type of psychiatric and neurological problems (despair, character adjustments, deficits in consideration, verbal, and/or visible reminiscence) after restoration. Mortality fee of Nipah can also be very excessive as it’s majorly untraceable, and has a fatality fee of 40 to 75 p.c, in accordance with the World Well being Organisation (WHO),” says Dr Tayal.

Dr Ajay Agarwal shares Nipah virus’s signs intimately:

1. Fever: Nipah virus an infection typically begins with a excessive fever.

2. Headache: Complications are a standard early symptom.

3. Muscle ache: Muscle aches and ache might happen, just like flu-like signs.

4. Fatigue: Profound weak spot and fatigue will be current.

5. Nausea: Many people expertise nausea, generally accompanied by vomiting.

6. Dizziness: Some individuals might really feel dizzy or lightheaded.

7. Psychological confusion: Because the illness progresses, confusion and disorientation might develop.

8. Seizures: In extreme instances, people might expertise seizures as a result of neurological problems.

9. Respiratory signs: Respiratory misery, together with problem respiration, can happen in extreme instances.

10. Coma: In probably the most extreme instances, people can slip right into a coma.

Dr G Sneha shares the next signs for Nipah virus

Fever: Nipah virus an infection typically begins with a excessive fever, usually 3 to 14 days after publicity.

Headache: Extreme complications are widespread.

Dizziness: Sufferers might expertise dizziness or disorientation.

Nausea and vomiting: Gastrointestinal signs like nausea and vomiting might happen.

Neck rigidity: Stiff neck and muscle ache will be early indicators of the an infection.

Psychological confusion: Because the illness progresses, sufferers might turn into disoriented and develop psychological confusion.

Coma: In extreme instances, Nipah virus an infection can result in a coma inside 24-48 hours.

“Moreover, it is essential to take precautions to forestall Nipah virus transmission, as it will possibly unfold from individual to individual by shut contact, respiratory droplets, or contact with contaminated objects or surfaces. Public well being measures reminiscent of isolation, quarantine, and an infection management practices are important to forestall outbreaks of Nipah virus an infection. Should you suspect a Nipah virus outbreak in your space or have considerations about potential publicity, it is important to contact native well being authorities for steerage and observe advisable preventive measures,” says Dr Agarwal.


Dr G Sneha says there is no such thing as a particular antiviral therapy for Nipah virus an infection and supportive care is the mainstay of therapy.

It could embody:

1. Hospitalization: Contaminated people are often hospitalized to obtain acceptable medical care and to forestall the unfold of the virus.

2. Supportive care: This consists of intravenous fluids to keep up hydration, ache administration, and mechanical air flow in extreme instances to help with respiration.

3. Experimental therapies: In some instances, experimental antiviral medication or therapies could also be thought of, however their effectiveness isn’t effectively established.

“Additionally, there are only a few experimental drugs reminiscent of Ribavirin and favipiravir which have proven some profit, however the therapy stays primarily symptomatic,” says Dr Tayal.


Dr G Sneha suggests Nipah virus affected person ought to be remoted and quarantined. Listed below are factors to recollect:

1. Isolation and quarantine: Contaminated hould be remoted to forestall additional transmission. Shut contacts ought to be monitored and quarantined if mandatory.

2. An infection management: Healthcare employees and caregivers ought to observe strict an infection management measures to forestall the unfold of the virus.

3. Preventive measures: In areas with recognized Nipah virus outbreaks, measures reminiscent of avoiding contact with sick animals, not consuming fruits contaminated by bat saliva or urine, and training good hygiene are vital for prevention.

4. Vaccines: Analysis is ongoing, and vaccines are being developed, however as of my final replace in September 2021, there was no licensed vaccine for Nipah virus.

“Hand hygiene and private protecting tools (PPE) stay as pillars of complete an infection prevention. We now have to recollect our studying from Covid and use the identical precautions that we’ve been following for the previous few years that’s hand hygiene, social distancing and utilization of masks,” says Dr Tayal.

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